Thyroglobulin (Tg) is a macromolecular glycoprotein secreted by thyroid follicular epithelial cells, most of which are synthesized by thyroid cells and released into the remnant cavity of thyroid follicles. Factors such as TSH, iodine deficiency in the thyroid, and thyroid-stimulating immunoglobulin can stimulate its production. In patients with congenital hypothyroidism, detection of Tg can differentiate between complete thyroid defect and thyroid hypoplasia. Thyroglobulin is also considered to be a specific marker of thyroid body shape integrity. It is a tumor marker of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), and can be used as an important reference index for the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer after treatment, and can also be used to identify subacute thyroiditis and pseudothyrotoxicosis.
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