Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is a glycoprotein secreted by trophoblast cells of the placenta, and it is composed of alpha and beta dimerized glycoproteins. A glycoprotein hormone with a molecular weight of 36700, the α subunit is basically similar to FSH (follicle stimulating hormone), LH (luteinizing hormone) and TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) secreted by the pituitary gland, so they can cross-react with each other, while the β subunit The structures of the bases vary. In mature women, after the fertilized egg moves into the uterine cavity and implants, an embryo is formed. During the process of development and growth into a fetus, the placental syncytiotrophoblast cells produce a large amount of HCG, which can be excreted into the urine through the maternal blood circulation. At 1 to 2.5 weeks of gestation, the HCG levels in serum and urine can rise rapidly, peak at the 8th week of pregnancy, and then drop to moderate levels in the 4th month of pregnancy, and remain at the end of pregnancy. Currently commonly used detection methods are: latex set inhibition test and hemagglutination inhibition test; radioimmunoassay (RIA); enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); monoclonal antibody colloidal gold test.
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