β2-microglobulin (β2-microglobulin, β2-MG) is an endogenous low molecular weight serum protein secreted by lymphocytes and most other nucleated cells and plays an important role in immune responses. Serum β2-MG easily passes through the glomerular filtration membrane, and 99.9% of the filtered β2-MG is reabsorbed and degraded by the proximal convoluted tubule cells and no longer flows back into the blood. The synthesis rate of normal human β2-MG and the amount released from the cell membrane are very constant, thus keeping the content of β2-MG at a stable level. The clinical detection of β2-MG concentration in blood or urine provides an early, reliable and sensitive indicator for clinical diagnosis of renal function determination, renal transplantation survival, diabetic nephropathy, heavy metal cadmium, mercury poisoning and some malignant tumors. Clinical methods for the determination of β2-MG include radioimmunoassay (RIA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay, immunotransmission turbidimetry, immune turbidimetry, and latex immune turbidimetry. method, latex-enhanced immune turbidimetric method, etc.
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